An Indonesian political youth movement affiliated with the Nahadatul Ulama group, it was founded in 1934 and continues to be active today.


Barisan Ansor Serbaguna (BANSER)

The Barisan Ansor Serbaguna (Multipurpose Ansor Front), is the Islamic militia group that serves as the armed wing of ANSOR in Indonesia.

Barisan Tani Indonesia (BTI)

The BTI, or Indonesian Farmers' Union, was the agrarian labor union affiliated to the PKI, which the party used as a key vehicle to build mass support amongst the agratian populace from 1945-1965.



The women's organization affiliated to the PKI, it was founded in 1950 and championed equipping women to contribute to nation-building both as gainfully employed workers and good wives and mothers at home, as opposed to traditional views in Indonesia that women needed to be subordinated to men, until it was banned by the state in 1965.


A commonly used abbreviation in Indonesia, referring to the events of September 30, 1965, when a faction of military officers led by Major General Suharto staged a coup d'état and seized control of the government.



The Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon (People's Anti-Japanese Army) was a communist-affiliated guerilla first formed to resist the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in 1942, but later staged a rebellion against the government in 1946. Though it was later reconstituted as the Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan (People's Liberation Army), the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines until its suppression in 1955, it continues to be popularly referred to as the HUKBALAHAP.


Ikatan Pemuda Pelajar Indonesia (IPPI)

The Indonesian Youth and Students Union was a youth organization affiliated to the PKI, and was active from 1948-1965, when the Suharto administration cracked down on the PKI.

Ilongo Landgrabbers Association (ILAGA)

An extremist Christian group active in Muslim-majority Mindanao, Philippines, that carried out attacks against the Muslim community from 1971-1979, with a brief resurgence in 2008.


Lembaga Kebudayaan Rakyat (Lekra)

The arts group affiliated to the PKI founded in 1950, Lekra (Institute for the People's Culture) promoted theatre and literature in Indonesia with themes of class struggle, but was banned with its parent party in 1965.

Lembaga Seniman Budayawan Muslimin Indonesia (Lesbumi)

The arts group affiliated to the Nahdlatul Ulama, Lesbumi (Association of the Muslim Cultural Artists of Indonesia) was founded in 1962 as a counter-organization to the PKI's Lekra, promoting traditional Islamic theatre and literature in Indonesia with themes drawn from Islamic theology and Arabian legends.


Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)

A splinter group from the MNLF; some leaders who separated from the parent group in 1977 after the MNLF signed an agreement with the Philippine government for a semi-autononous region in Muslim Mindanao, established MILF as a separate entity in 1984 seeking a separate state for the Muslims of Mindanao.

Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)

The leading seccessionist group seeking an independent state for the Muslims of Mindanao.


Nahdlatul Ulama (NU)

The largest Islamic organization in Indonesia and the world, it promotes traditional Islamic culture and Javenese traditions in Indonesian politics, since its founding in 1926.

New Order

The name coined by the second Indonesian President, Suharto, for his regime which held power from 1965-1997, characterized by strong curtailment of civil liberties, cronyism, and suppression of suspected communists.

New People's Army (NPA)

The contemporary armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines founded in 1969, it has been designated as a terrorist organization by the Philippine and American governments.


Partai Kommunis Indonesia (PKI)

The Communist Party of Indonesia, it was active in the early and mid 20th century, organizing 2 major uprisings in 1926 and 1948, and was largely suppressed by the military by 1968.

Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI)

The Nationalist Party of Indonesia, it was active in the early and mid 20th century, and formed the first Indonesian government after independence, led by President Sukarno.