Interview With Chen Fuyu

Chen Fuyu discusses the life circumstances of Xiamen Port fishermen in Cold War China.

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Chen Fuyu discusses the Kuomintang (KMT)’a use of psychological warfare across the Taiwan strait in the 1950s. In 1958, his father’s fishing boat was taken away by KMT soldiers. His father and other fishermen were held on Penghu Island for 70 days, during which they were subjected to propaganda to convert them into spies for the KMT. They were even forcefully brought to temples to swear allegiance to the Taiwanese government before their ancestors. Upon their release, fishermen would have to report to the Communist government and expose each other, and some were sent for re-education, including Chen’s father. Those who could not pass this test were transferred from sea-fishing to land-farming, which greatly affected their finances. 

    Further, both the mainland and Taiwan governments also handed out leaflets and gifts to people of the other side to entice defectors. Over the years, fishermen across the strait developed friendships over this culture of gifting, and no longer focused on enticing defections. Fishermen from Xiamen Harbor captured four KMT soldiers during the “6th of August Naval Battle,” whom they treated well and sent back to Taiwan. When relations between both sides resumed in the 1980s, one of the captured soldiers went back to Xiamen to visit the fishermen and thank them.

  • Name of interviewee:陈复授

  • Interview by:林良材

  • Proofreader:陈永明,陈乙燊

  • Interview script:

心理战与俘虏

1958年夏天,“八二三炮击金门”之前,父亲的船被金门蒋军牵走了,整船的人都送到所谓的“澎湖大陆渔民救济站”,在那住了七十天。回来之后被叫到民生路(现民族路)那边,市里专设的“对敌办”驻地,住在那里好几个星期,不能回家。原则上是,被抓去多少天,回来也要“消毒”多少天。加上风潮海汛等方面的影响,很多渔民遇到这种事,几平是大半年出不了海,断了所有经济来源。

1958年夏天,船被金门蒋军牵去,父亲回来后被关起来学,他是老大,在两边都是重点对象,如何“个别谈话”,遭遇什么样的折腾和困感,他一句都不说。那时候真是不理解,现在回想,也许父亲是怕我们不了解实情,旁加议论,招致更多的伤害。也许他是对的。后来我听说:渔民被蒋军抓去后,被分别训话,且单线联系。蒋军故意制造气氛,致使渔民相互猜疑。渔民被放回来之前,更绝了,蒋军暗中给每个人封官许愿,说将来反攻大陆,要委任某级官职。不管你愿意不愿意,将你领到妈祖等宫庙神明之前,点上香,递到你手上,让你双手捧香祭拜,诅咒发誓以后要按蒋军的指令办事。还有的,被蒋军政工人员领着,从澎湖坐上飞机,到台湾的各大城市观光洗脑。

渔民一家老小都在厦门,谁都想早日回来见到妻儿老小,无奈之下,只得表面顺从。回来之后,在那里的一举一动,都要向政府交代。渔船不能出海,家里断了收入,还要互相揭发,层层洗脑。有人揭发说,渔船被牵到台湾后,父亲多次劝告船工,不要硬顶硬干,要装可怜点,以求得同情,好放船早日回来。说福清那是软骨头,没有斗争精神,没有战斗勇气。甚至还说,父亲不敢斗争,就是有投降敌人的嫌疑。莫须有的罪名,令父亲心灵备受煎熬,这种煎熬和现实的苦楚交织在一起,父亲都埋藏在心底。有个名叫漆仔的老置民,原来也在船上捕鱼,船被蒋军牵去又放回来后,有人揭发说,漆仔讲过不好的话,受“对敌办”教育后,还发牢骚、讲怪话,对现实不满,从此漆仔的个人档案上留下污点。后来政府动员漆仔去山区参加建设,临行还送脸盆、毛巾,戴红花,敲锣打鼓为他送行。漆仔后来说,其实是不够判刑条件,送去劳改队开矿,一去几年没能回家。我父亲还算幸运,没有因被揭发而受处分或调离,有的船老大或船上的骨干,因斗争性不强,被当作有投敌嫌疑,不仅被调离岗位不准从事海上捕捞作业,还被发配到农场或其他辅助行业劳动,干自己完全不熟悉的工作。渔民在船上,粮食定量供应,每月48斤,还有优待供应的食用油票、香烟票、酒票和其他副食品。下了船,一切待遇都变了。后勤单位的职工,每月粮食只有28斤,二两油、半斤肉、一斤鱼、两块豆干,在当时,不但影响个人声誉,经济收入和生活待遇更是受到重大影响。

1949年新中国成立前夕,蒋军从厦门港牵走29条渔船,船上有渔民320多人。新中国成立后两岸军事对時,在极“左”的政治气氛之下人人自危,谁也不敢提台湾有熟人、朋友,甚至不敢承认在台湾有熟人。偶然在海上渔场作业时相遇,最多只是打声招呼,双方都知道各自的为难,都很难为情,生怕回去后有人汇报给有关部门,给自己和家人招惹麻烦。

后来中国政府和台湾当局加强心战,厦门港渔民出海的时候,由水上派出所布置任务,每条船都会带上许多宣传品,到海上渔场送散发。台湾渔船也会给我们的渔民赠送类似的宣传品。我们的船收到台湾的宣传单后,由船上的组长(分管船上政治学习及行政事务)负责销毁,一般都是丢到海里了事,不敢让渔民传看阅读。当然,因次数频繁,宣传品很多,渔民多少看到一些也是常事,但大家互相间不敢议论。两岸渔船除了互送宣传品,还互相赠送土特产。我们这边主要是送厦门高粱酒、厦门米粉,松筠堂、万全堂的药酒等。一段时间后,双方渔民的交流多了一些。老渔民之间互相太熟悉了,聊点家长里短,相互道一道生活状况,互相打听亲戚的下落,交流渔场信息和经验。一来二往,重叙旧情,但相互间还是很有节制。

那是1965年,发生了著名的“八六海战”。解放军海军击沉蒋军“章江号、剑门号”猎潜舰。当天,渔捞公社402号船,在福建与广东交界的兄弟岛海域捕鱼。有一位摇竹排放绲仔绳的渔民,发现海面上漂浮着救生艇,艇上乘坐的是蒋军士兵。他立即摇着竹排回母船报告。船老大阮发明很机智,驾船超救生艇靠近,绕了一圈仔细观察救生艇四周的情况,发现艇上只有四人,其中有一个拿着枪,还有一个奄奄一息的伤员。阮发明和轮机员阮亚坤与大家一起商量,认为虽然有危险,但回避不了,于是阮发明当机立断,率领渔船主动出击,实施抓捕。母船上的人员各自做好准备,信号发出,散布在海面作业的十几条竹排迅速向母船靠拢。阮发明与阮亚坤放一只舳板冲上前,一个持捕大鲨鱼的标枪,一个持斧头和绳索。本来分工时说好,冲上去一个人喊“缴枪不杀”,另一个人喊“举起手来”。事到临头,突然就紧张了,船老大阮发明大吼声“举起脚来”!事后要写表彰材料,我去采访,船上众人学他那样子演示一番,一船老小笑得前仰后翻。唯独憨厚耿直得船老大没笑,他慢条斯理地说:“喊什么有什么要紧,反正是把他们抓回来了嘛。”救生艇上的蒋军士兵,因舰船被击沉,漂泊在海上已成惊弓之鸟。看到围拢来的十几条竹排,撑篙持橹,个个都是彪形大汉,小舢板上领头的两位,鱼镖铁矛闪闪发光,早已吓破胆。他们根本没听清楚喊得是什么,在求生得欲望支使下,本能地举起手来缴械投降。402号船受到表彰,阮发明和阮亚坤荣获一等功。1989年有位年老地台胞回到厦门,在厦门港找到阮亚坤,他是“八六海战”被俘地四人中的一位。说起当年漂泊在海上、陷于九死一生绝境时,万幸遇上厦港渔民。上船后受到优待,后来又遣送回台湾,救命之恩,永志不忘,代表大家前来道谢。阮亚坤热情泡茶招待,聊起当年情景,不胜感叹。可惜阮亚坤不久前也走了。

Interviewer: Chen Yongming

Interviewee: Chen Fuyu

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Transcript Notes


  1. Chen Fuyu, male, formerly known as Chen Fushou, pseudonym Chen Haibao, Lu Bo, etc. Born in 1940 in a fishermen's boat-dwelling family, he attended fishermen's elementary school, and after graduating from high school, he was employed in Xiamen Fishing Commune, and served as a cultural instructor, director of the club, head of the propaganda and education section, director of the party committee office, and deputy secretary of the party committee of Xiamen Ocean Industry Corporation. He worked in Xiamen Port District for forty years, edited the enterprise newspaper; compiled and wrote the enterprise history, and participated in the compilation of Xiamen Fishery Journal, Xiamen City Journal - Fishery Volume. Over the years, he has published more than 500,000 words of works in national, provincial and industrial newspapers and magazines. After retirement, he has been writing the book "Xiamen boat-dwelling customs".

  1. Consider how the development of social networks across the Taiwan Strait from the 1950s shaped the Cold War in China? Discuss how it illustrates the fishermen’s agency in navigating the Cold War.