Interview With Zhang Guohe

Zhang Guohe discusses clashes between the Kuomintang and Chinese fishing vessels out at sea by Xiamen Port in the 1960s.

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Zhang Guohe begins by recalling how his vicinity around Xiamen port came to be heavily militarized and staffed by an artillery company from his early childhood. As fishermen were amongst the most vulnerable groups most likely to be arrested by Kuomintang vessels, they were closely monitored by the authorities. However, as the fishermen’s catch constituted an important contribution to the commune, they were given privileges and permitted to buy goods from a special provision shop. As a countermeasure to Taiwanese propaganda, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) also secretly trained agents onboard ships, unbeknownst to their fellow crew members.

    By the time Zhang began work for the commune as a clerk in 1961, tensions had slightly eased, but he remained alert while onboard ships. He recalls how some vessels were towed away by KMT forces to Taiwan. On one occasion when the crew initially refused to follow them to Taiwan, they shot a woman onboard. He also shares about another occasion when the abducted crew members managed to escape their captors and return to mainland China with the guidance of the captain, who was Zhang’s colleague. Other vessels were not as fortunate, and detained for months before being returned to the mainland. While under arrest, the crews were held in a school and confined to the playground, and had to attend daily interrogations with KMT officials. 

    Upon their return, they had to be investigated by mainland officials on whether they had been ideologically indoctrinated by their captors. This created tension between returnees and authorities, who did not allow the victims to go home but held them on the ship until investigations were closed. As Zhang had strong rapport with these fishermen, he was invited into the interrogation panel. These sessions were of interest to the police, military, and Public Security Bureau as they provided critical intelligence on the situation in Taiwan.

    Later, KMT agents changed their strategy, and the Taiwan Strait became became a platform for a propaganda competition between the CCP and KMT. KMT agents released flyers in bottles explaining how life was better in Taiwan. However, some of these bottles held explosives, and Zhang’s classmates lost his arms when he unknowingly opened a bottle that carried an explosive charge. As part of the CCP’s efforts, however, mainland fishermen shared bait with Taiwanese peers who ran out, helped repair their ships and escorted them to Taiwan when they encountered equipment malfunctions, and even replenished their supplies. At times, Taiwanese agents also sent over daily necessities as gifts to entice defectors, which recipients were allowed to keep. However, paraphernalia featuring Chiang Kai Shek and other political figures had to be surrendered, which were collected by Zhang.

  • Name of interviewee:张国和

  • Interview by:吴超慧、王颖

  • Proofreader:陈永明、陈乙燊

  • Keywords:炮连;渔民合作社;阮注成;江贼目船;擒获;台海渔民;气球;日用品;宣传品;食品

  • Biographical info:张国和,男,祖籍惠安濑窟。1944年生于龙海县浯屿岛,1948年随母亲迁到厦门港旧鱼行口。自幼家境贫寒,父母早逝,靠长姐抚养成人。1961年初中毕业后到厦港渔区工作,先后担任过厦门市海洋渔捞公社文书收发,办事组副组长、组长,公社副主任。1982年考入厦门市委党校外经干部专修班进修,两年后毕业,调入厦门市水产局工作,任厦门市水产局副局长,退休后被推选委厦门市渔业协会第一、二届会长。

  • Geographical info:中华儿女美术馆一楼琥珀书店

  • Time period:2013年8月、9月、12月

  • Source:厦门市社会科学界联合会:《口述史:厦门港记忆》,厦门:鹭江出版社,2014年。

  • Pictures if possible

  • Interview script:

冷战初期紧张氛围

那时厦大一带驻扎有炮连,曾厝垵也设防严密。当时我十来岁跟年纪比较大的孩子,到曾厝垵挖地瓜,捡花生粒路上部能看到民兵扛着枪,他们问我们为什么来这儿,并且不让我们再走过去。当时的塔头也是戒备森严,连学生都不能去,搞得气氛很神秘。如果随意到海边走动,很容被人怀疑是不是要下海偷渡投敌。总之当时管得很严,山上有观察哨,也不让民众到山上去。外地人很难走进来需要接受盘查。厦门本地人也要会说本地话的才能来厦门港走动气氛是非常紧张的。

因为渔民要出海,属于容易被台湾的国民党兵抓去发展的对象,所以政府也采取了一些措施和政策。当时部队就在渔民当中发展一些积极分子,一般是船上的主要成员,都是一对一发展,渔民自己也不知道船上的谁是积极分子,搞得跟地下工作者一样。这些事没有公开,因此很多民兵的事迹未得到表彰,到后来有很多渔民找我们,证实当时做的工作,同是否能在待遇上给予一些补助。

渔民特殊化

当时对渔民也有特殊化的照题。渔民因海上生产辛苦,所以给他们设立了渔民合作社,专门特供生活物资,如烟、酒等等。在鱼市场门口,还设置了渔民小卖部,供应比较好的产品,如面粉等,这叫作“渔民特供店”,当时惠安、龙海这一带的人很多嫁到厦门,到这边发展,不过外地人还是很好奇,觉得这里是前线,随时可能打过来,他们居然还可以在这里安住下来。

擒获与被擒获

60年代初,我参加工作的时候厦门港的这种紧张气氛会淡化些,但是涉及海上生产工作时还是会比较警惕。厦门离金门、大小岛近,渔民出海要经过台湾海峡、金门料罗湾,国民党兵会抓渔铅,所以还是挺紧张的。

当时我在渔行公社工作,我的同事阮注成就是渔民出身,在新中国成立前后他曾在船上被国民党官兵抓到料罗湾去,后来不仅机智脱逃,还抓了押船的国民党官兵。当时的经过是这样的,溃逃的国民党军队从厦门劫走渔船29艘,这些船大部分被关在金门的后铺港准备接着一起送到台湾岛去。为了防止厦门渔船外逃,驻守金门的国民党军,专门设了一个管理所,严密监视厦门渔船的动静。船上的渔民想回家呀,就不断想办法要逃出去。我同事阮注成当时是一船上的副船长,负责夜间值班。有一次,渔船要转移到嘉礼头避风,他就趁机联络另一条船,叫江贼目船的,准备一起逃脱。渔船驶离港口后,在料罗湾附近转向北淀,阮注成利用两船靠近的机会,向江贼目船发出“帆拉紧”的暗号。这个时候,江贼目船上的一个国民党军队的副班长发现情况不妙,对着阮注成船上的国民党军副连长喊道:“你们船上的要造反了!”说完准备跳到阮注成的船上,阮注成及时把大舵一偏,两船距离拉开了,国民党军副班长掉进了海里。这个时候,阮注成船上的旺成、阮再成一起扑向国民党军连长想夺下他手中的枪,渔妇阮美治见状就用力地咬国民党军副连长握枪的手,帮旺成夺下枪,船上其他人员看到副连长被制服,只好械,此时,江贼目船也结束了战斗,共擒获国民党官兵11人,于当天下午胜利抵达晋江围头湾,我一参加工作,注成就把这个故事讲给我听,说主要还是趁着国民党官兵海上作业疲惫,抓到了好时机也是因为被抓去的船上渔民比船的国民多,所以抓住他们看管疏忽的机会,反而把他们给抓回来了。在晋江围头湾,我们的部队就把国民党官兵带走了,于是这两艘船都立了功。

可也不是都能顺利脱的,从20世起50年代到年代,国民党军队就经常封锁海面,炮击渔船,抓扣渔民。就在我工作的时候,还碰上这样的事:1964年7月,厦门海洋渔捞公社的一些渔船,在台湾海峡的外斜渔场作业,因为离台海澎湖的大屿岛比较近,伪装成渔船的国民党军队船只窜人渔场,采取突然袭击,抓扣了正在附近作业的厦渔“101号”和“406号”渔船,要把他们拉往澎湖。当时,“101号”大船上只有船长、轮机长及一些妇女和小孩,他们以竹排还在海上为由,一边同国民党军周旋,一边向附近的竹排发出回船信号。国民党军看到渔船只顾收竹排,不愿意跟他们走,恼羞成怒,当场开枪打伤了船上的一位妇女。这两艘渔船被强行拖往澎湖大屿,把正在海上作业的18只竹排、22名渔民丢在海上。竹排上的渔民看不到渔船,22人一条心,18只竹排围拢在一起,采取平潮摇橹、逆流抛顺流漂流的办法以保存体力,在海上艰苦奋战了17个小时后,他们才被其他渔船救助回到厦门港。被劫走的两条大船上还有二十来个渔民,船被拖往澎湖大峪后,渔民被关在岸上的一间小学内,每天被叫去询问,搞政治宣传等,还派了二十多个国民党兵轮流看守,渔民们平时只能在操场活动。渔船被扣押了近两个月,才放回厦门。回到厦门,我们也需要询问这些渔民,一开始还不能让他们回家,要留在船上,我们的工作人员上去了解情况。也有请他们下来,到工作组的办公地点问话。刚开始,渔民的抵触情绪很大,说:“怎么国民党关押我们,回来你们也不信任我们?”这是完全可以理解的,但出于工作需要,这样的问话还是需要进行。我那时比较年轻,但是跟渔民关系处得很好,所以就叫我去问,也就大致了解到以上情况。

台海上的“宣传战”

不过,虽然台海形势紧张,但还是能感受到台海渔民一家亲。他们同在一个渔场作业,在海上经常相遇,台湾渔船钓金枪鱼需要活鱼作饵料,我们的渔船就会送些给他们。台湾渔船在海上机器坏了回不了台湾,我们的渔船就把他们拖回港内,帮助维修,补充物资后再让其返回台湾。随着海两岸关系的缓和,厦门港渔民与台湾渔民的交流越来越频繁。新中国成立前夕被抓往台湾的厦港渔民,也通过各种渠道大陆人的信息,寄送些物资,有的甚至同来探亲。

台湾那边对我们,也不断改变策略。1961年的时候,我在办公室做文书、文秘工作,1964年以后就开始涉入到渔民生产工作中去,负责做一些后勤工作,所以我了解到,早先咱们的渔船活动受国民干扰,他们不让过,会来抓,到了60年代初,他们不抓也不打渔民了,而是改变策略:发宣传品,送渔民毛巾、思容、香烟等,跟渔民宣传台湾的生活多么好。小金门附近,有国民放气球过来,他们在气球底下放了很多日用品、食品和宣传品,气球在空中飘一段时间,气不够就掉下来,在水上漂。他们也会把物资装进密封的塑料管,放在海上漂。顺着潮水,这些塑料管会漂到我们这边的的,可里面不一定都是宣传品和物资,有时也放爆炸物——我少年时期的一个朋友,有一次在白城海滩上就看到这样的塑料管,他很好奇,就去拆,没想到打开时竟然爆炸了他也因此被炸断了双手。

那时候海上相遇,有时国民党兵也会直接送给渔民各种物品。渔民会上缴宣传品,包括一些印有“中华民国”和老蒋头像标识的日用品。我刚好负责收缴这些东西,尤其是那些宣传品,有一间小仓库堆得满满的。其他一些日用品就不必上缴了,像烟酒之类,渔民自己可以留着。因为当时政治上比较敏感,凡与国民党兵船相遇,回来都要被请去谈话,船长、组长全部被请去派出所了解情况并做记录。不仅派出所,对台办、公安局的很多人也要来听他们介绍情况。渔民正常的生产作业因为受到这些政治因素的影响,被搞得很复杂,在当时那种形势下,我们就只能开辟新渔场了,否则生产会受到很大影响。

Interviewer: Chen Yongming

Interviewee: Zhang Guohe

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Transcript Notes


  1. Zhang Guohe, male, is from Huian Segui, born in 1944 on Wuyu Island, Longhai County, and moved to the old fishery port of Xiamen with his mother in 1948. After graduating from junior high school in 1961, he went to work in the fishing area of Xiamen Port, and served as a clerk of the Xiamen Marine Fishing Commune, deputy head of the office group, head of the group, and deputy director of the commune. 1982, he entered the special training course for foreign economic cadres at the Xiamen Municipal Party School, and graduated two years later. After retirement, he was elected as the first and second president of Xiamen Fisheries Association.

  1. Consider what the Cold War was for the fishing communities on either side of the Taiwan strait in light of Zhang Guohe’s reflections. How does it nuance or diverge from traditional Western historiographies of the Cold War?

  2. Discuss the extent to which the Cold War was a contest over ideas and the extent to which it was a struggle over material realities for fishing communities like the people of Xiamen port.